The Mutilation of the Herms: Unpacking an Ancient Mystery

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They in turn gave birth to the Titans. The Titans existed before the gods. They were the sons of the heaven and earth. Cronus , the father of Zeus was one of the Titans.

Hermes - sprawdź! (str. 25 z 35)

Aphrodite arose from the discarded genitals. The god's lovemaking positions were also a little weird. Tartarus, the goddess of the Underworld , made love with Typhoeus while he was one her shoulders with his hundred snake heads "licking black tongues darting forth.

Ancient Greek literature is filled with sex, violence and scandal. The reasons why some of the works are relatively clean todayand more boring than the otherwise might beis that many of the translations were done by Victorian era Britons. Greek dramas often featured liberal use actors of with giant phalluses and references to homosexuality.

In Clouds Aristophanes wrote: "How to be modest, sitting so as not to expose his crotch, smoothing out the sand when he arose so that the impress of his buttocks would not be visible, and how to be strong The emphasis was on beauty A beautiful boy is a good boy. Education is bound up with male love, an idea that is part of the pro-Spartan ideology of Athens A youth who is inspired by his love of an older male will attempt to emulate him, the heart of educational experience.

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The older male in his desire of the beauty of the youth will do whatever he can improve it. In Aristophanes's The Birds , one older man says to another with disgust: "Well, this is a fine state of affairs, you demanded desperado! You meet my son just as he comes out of the gymnasium, all rise from the bath, and don't kiss him, you don't say a word to him, you don't hug him, you don't feel his balls! And you're supposed to be a friend of ours! For most ancient Greeks, for example, friendship was every bit as passionate and valuable as romantic-sexual love.

Many of the great thinkers of love acknowledged its mortality. Aristotle said that love between two people should end if they are no longer alike in their virtues. Courtship scene Some scholars claim that the idea of love began with the Greeks and the notion of romantic love began with chivalry in the Middle Ages.

The ancient Greek poet Nimnerus wrote: "What is life, what is joy without golden Aphrodite? According to one myth, Zeus originally created three sexes: men, women and hermaphrodites. The hermaphrodites had two heads, two set of arms and two sets of genitals. Alarmed by their power, he separated each one in half: some became lesbians, some became male homosexuals and some became heterosexuals.

Each felt incomplete and spent his or her life trying to track his or her other half down. Arisphanes expressed similar ideas. In an attempt define love he wrote: "Each of us when separated, having one side only, like a flat fish, is but the indenture of man, and he is always looking for his other half And when one of them meets his other half, the actual half of himself, whether he be a lover of youth or of another sort, the pair are lost in amazement of love and friendship and intimacy, and will not be out of the other's sight, as I may say, even a moment Plato espoused similar ideas.

He viewed lovers as incomplete halves who could not find peace until they found each other. His ponderings in The Symposium , a banquet staged in honor of Eros, are the oldest known attempt to systematically unravel the mysteries of love. In The Republic , Plato wrote about marriage mainly as a means of reproduction while he wrote about the erotic loves in Symposium in "blushingly romantic terms.

Lay Allous low with fever, with unceasing sickness, lack of appetite, senselessness. Goad the tortured soul, the heart of Karosa Immediately, quickly, quickly Mother, brothers, sisters, until she comes to me Burn her limbs, live, female body, until she comes to me, and not disobeying me. John Opsopaus of hermetic. It is quite likely that many of the papyri come from a single source, perhaps a tomb or temple library, and it is commonly supposed that they were collected by a Theban Magician.

In any case, they are one of the best sources of Greco-Egyptian magic and religion. Pound together.

Trying Neaira

Anoint your Phallus with it and lie with the Woman. If it is dry, you should pound a little of it with Wine, anoint your Phallus with it, and lie with the Woman. Very Good. If you wish to win a Woman who is beautiful, be Pure for 3 days, make an offering of Frankincense, and call this Name over it. You approach the Woman and say it seven times in your Soul as you gaze at her, and in this way it will succeed. But do this for 7 days. According to historians, demographic studies suggest the ancients attempted to limit family size.

Greek historians wrote that urban families in the first and second centuries B. Between A. Before intercourse women tried applying a perceived spermicidal oil made from juniper trees or blocking their cervix with a block of wood. Women also ate dates and pomegranates to avoid pregnancy modern studies have shown that the fertility of rats decreases when they ingest these foods. Women in Greece and the Mediterranean were told that scooped out pomegranates halves could be used as cervical caps and sea sponges rinsed in acidic lemon juice could serve as contraceptives.

The Greek physician Soranus wrote in the 2nd century A. In the seventh century B. The pungent sap from silphion, the ancient Greeks found, helped relieve coughs and tasted good on food, but more importantly it proved to be an effective after-intercourse contraceptive. A substance from a similar plant called ferujol has been shown in modern clinical studies to be percent successful in preventing pregnancy in female rats up to three days after coitus. Worth more than is weight on silver, it was described by Hippocrates, Diosorides and a play by Aristophanes. Sixth century B.

The plant was so much in demand in ancient Greece it eventually became scarce, and attempts to grow it outside of the mile-long mountainous region it grew in Libya failed. By the 5th century B. Abortions were performed in ancient times, says North Carolina State history professor John Riddle, and discussions about featured many of the same arguments we hear today. The Greeks and Romans made a distinction between a fetus with features and one without features.

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The latter could be aborted without having to worry about legal or religious reprisals. Plato advocated population control in the ideal city state and Aristotle suggested that "if conception occurs in excess The Stoics believed the human soul appeared when first exposed to cool air, and the potential for a soul existed at conception. Hippocrates warned physicians in his oath not to use one kind of abortive suppository, but the statement was misinterpreted as a blanket condemnation of all of abortion. John Chrystom, the Byzantine bishop of Constantinople compared abortion to murder in A.

The Law Code of Gortyn B. In the 19th Century, a law code from Gortyn on Crete was discovered, dealing fully with family relations and inheritance; less fully with tools, slightly with property outside of the household relations; slightly too, with contracts; but it contains no criminal law or procedure.

This still visible inscription is the largest document of Greek law in existence see above for its chance survival , but from other fragments we may infer that this inscription formed but a small fraction of a great code. If one commit rape on a free man or woman, he shall pay staters, and if on the son or daughter of an apetairos ten, and if a slave on a free man or woman, he shall pay double, and if a free man on a male or female serf five drachmas, and if a serf on a male or female serf, five staters.

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If one debauch a female house-slave by force he shall pay two staters, but if one already debauched, in the daytime, an obol, but if at night, two obols. If one tries to seduce a free woman, he shall pay ten staters, if a witness testify. They came up with all sorts of lurid ideas—that they were single-breasted lesbians who killed their male children, or that they mated once a year with strangers to perpetuate an all-female society, or that an Amazon had to kill a man before she could lose her virginity.

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The reality of Amazon family life was different. It took place outdoors, outside of marriage, in the summer season, with any man an Amazon cared to mate with. Mayor worked with a linguist and vase expert to examine some of the words on vases depicting Amazons. Most Scythians were nomadic, horse-riding people of the steppe. But these were Royal Scythians—wealthy traders who had settled in towns. To avoid being raided, the Royal Scythians sent out scouts, who discovered that the strange marauders were Amazons. The Scythians found this intriguing. They had planned to send soldiers to kill the marauders; instead, they assembled a party of nice young men.

Life in town was luxurious, but it lacked a certain something: the Royal Scythian women mostly stayed indoors, doing chores and feeling bored. Nasser Al-Jahwari. Stephen Bradford Marte. Israel Finkelstein. The Athenian Agora Museum Guide 5th ed. Laura Gawlinski Craig A.

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