Personal Incredulity— Objective or Subjective

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Jack: Sorry, your argument is full of contradictions. Ted: Contradictions only apply to the carnal mind, not the spiritual one. Explanation: Besides being a case of the subjectivist fallacy , Ted is also moving outside the realm of reason and logic.

  1. The Meaning of Truth (Dover Books on Western Philosophy);
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  6. Religious Experience: Subjective or Objective.
  7. Relativist fallacy!

Exception: Many things are actually true or false, depending on the person to which the rule may or may not apply. While Twinkies may be horrible to you, I find them delicious—baked, spongy sunshine with a white, creamy, cloud-like center, with the power to make any problem go away—even if just for a brief, magical moment. Logically Fallacious is one of the most comprehensive collections of logical fallacies with all original examples and easy to understand descriptions; perfect for educators, debaters, or anyone who wants to improve his or her reasoning skills.

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Over 10 hours of video and interactive learning. Go beyond the book! Sit back and learn fallacies the easy way—in just a few minutes per day, via e-mail delivery. Have a podcast or know someone who does? Putting on a conference? Bennett is available for interviews and public speaking events. Contact him directly here. Accused of a fallacy? Suspect a fallacy? Ask Dr.

Fallacy wherein subjective experience is interpreted as objective?

Bo and the community! Alternatively, have a friend blindfold you and place you some unspecified distance from a wall. Step toward the wall a few inches at a time, speaking loudly, and stop when the wall is directly in front of you. Most people find they can do this quite reliably. But of course you can't see or touch the wall, and the wall is making no sound of its own. You are echolocating. One final test to prove it to yourself, this one relevant to shape and texture.

Close your eyes, repeat some syllable, and have a friend hold one of three objects in front of your face: a book, a wadded-up T-shirt, and a mixing bowl. One popular view is to say that we perceive the coin in two aspects. In one aspect, we perceive the raw sense data from our visual plane, which shows the coin as being elliptical because one end of it is stretching away from us. In another aspect, we perceive it as circular because our minds have an intuitive physics about the shape permanence of solid objects.

Perhaps our minds 'flip' between seeing the coin from the two aspects - a kind of 'Gestalt shift' - just as it flips between seeing a rabbit and a duck in Wittgenstein's famous duck-rabbit drawing. What exactly is my sensory experience as I stare at a penny? My first and recurring inclination is to say that the penny looks just plain circular, in a three-dimensional space - not elliptical at all However, I also find that if I dip my head lower to view the penny from a flatter angle, I begin to see how one might think it looks elliptical.

Closing one eye helps too Am I experiencing the ellipse too? Maybe not. But neither can I say that I noticed any Gestalt shift Could it be, simply, that my visual experience is disorganized, so that there is no simple relationship between viewing angle and apparent shape? Maybe my terms and concepts are muddled. What is it for something to 'look elliptical'?

Or am I simply a poor introspector?

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Maybe the fact that my own phenomenology in this case doesn't seem obvious to me reveals my introspective ineptitude And yet I am not sure I should trust other [people's] introspections either. The character of our subjective experience of shape at varying angles and distances is widely debated by philosophers and psychologists, 4 lending some support to the claim that we are unsure of it. But what else do you know? Schwitzgebel questions:. How much of the scene can you vividly visualize at once? Can you keep the image of the chimney vividly in mind at the same time that you vividly imagine your front door, or how does the image of the chimney fade as you begin to think about the door?

How much detail does your image have? How stable is it? If you can't visually imagine the entire front of your house in rich detail all at once, what happens to the aspects of the image that are relatively less detailed? If the chimney is still experienced as part of the imagery when your imagemaking energies are focused on the front door, how exactly is it experienced? Does it have determinate shape, determinate color?

In general, do the objects in your image have color before you think to assign color to them, or do some of the colors remain indeterminate, at least for a while? If there is indeterminacy of color, how is that indeterminacy experienced? As gray? Does your visual image have depth in the same way that your sensory experienced does Do you experience the image as located somewhere in egocentric space - inside your head, or before your eyes, or in front of your forehead - or does it make no sense to attempt to assign it a position in this way?

When questioned in this way, most people quickly become uncertain about the character of their own subjective conscious experience. Most people, when asked, are fairly confident of their answer.

Subjective Reality: the Alternate Possibility

But there are also certain populations that overwhelming report dreaming in black and white. Is there something in our genes or in the air that decides whether or not we dream in color, or are we confused about our own subjective experience? Schwitzgebel reviews the arguments back and forth, but none give a clear answer.

And unfortunately, there remains much disagreement about the neurology of color experience. Do you have constant tactile experience of your feet in your shoes? Constant visual experience of the frames of your eyeglasses? Is consciousness abundant , the stream of experience bristling with phenomenology in a wide variety of modalities simultaneously visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, imagistic, proprioceptive, emotional , or is it sparse , limited to one or a few things at a time?

Suppose you have driven to work by the same route a thousand times. Today, you are absorbed in remembering an unpleasant interaction with your department head. Traffic is light, no dangerous situation occurs, and you drive habitually.

Critical Thinking: The Fallacy of Argument From Incredulity

You arrive at your usual parking area and seem to "wake up" - "Ah, I'm at work already! Did you have visual experience while you were driving? You responded to events on the road, stopped at red lights, and stayed in your lane But perhaps visual input can influence behavior without the involvement of consciousness. These are difficult questions, and both experts and laymen disagree as to their answers. Have you noticed that you perceive vertical distance as greater when you are looking down than when you are looking up? Well, you do.

Have you noticed that you perceive changes in 'approaching' sounds as being greater than equivalent changes in 'receding' sounds? Have you noticed that you perceived 'approaching' sounds as occurring more near to you than 'receding' sounds?

Faith Drunk thinking: Divine fallacy, Argument from Incredulity, and Argument from ignorance

You do. As many people who practices meditation seriously can tell you, the subjective contents of conscious experience are often surprising and uncertain. We can be wrong about our own subjective conscious experiences. At least, minimally complex subjective conscious experiences cannot. Note that I also interviewed the author here.